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Copyright and Science Communication

The internet is fundamentally changing how research is shared. Traditional copyright increasingly falls short when applied to intellectual property created and shared in digital form. The traditional journal publishing paradigm is changing rapidly in response to newer, faster, and less expensive avenues for disseminating science. Today's scientists, researchers and scholars should keep up-to-date on the controversies and changes occurring in science communication. The commercial monopoly of science journals, increasingly limited intellectual property rights, and barriers to the free flow of scientific knowledge are among the concerns addressed here. Please contact your local NOAA Librarian if you would like more information on these issues.


U.S. Copyright Office
Copyright basics (12-page PDF) | Duration of copyright | Fair Use fact sheet (PDF)

American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP)
ASCAP protects the rights of its members by licensing and distributing royalties for the non-dramatic public performances of their copyrighted works. ASCAP's licensees encompass all who want to perform copyrighted music publicly. ASCAP makes giving and obtaining permission to perform music simple for both creators and users of music.

Copyright Clearance Center
The place to go to begin the process of receiving legal permission to use works in copyright.

Digital Copyright Slider

Creative Commons
Provides free licenses and other legal tools to mark creative work with the freedom the creator wants it to carry, so others can share, remix, use commercially, or any combination thereof.

Kuester Law
This website is a comprehensive resource for technology law information, especially including patent, copyright & trademark law

Legal Information Institute (Cornell)
LII is a leading non-commercial provider of public legal information. Start here: Intellectual Property.

Library Copyright Alliance
The purpose of the LCA is to work toward a unified voice and common strategy for the library community in responding to and developing proposals to amend national and international copyright law and policy for the digital environment. The LCA’s mission is to foster global access and fair use of information for creativity, research, and education. The Alliance is comprised of the American Library Association, the Association of Research Libraries, and the Association of College and Research Libraries.

NOAA Seattle Library
Copyright, Intellectual Property and Linking Disclaimer

Stanford University Libraries Fair Use Information

Scientific communication

Coalition for Networked Information
CNI is an organization dedicated to supporting the transformative promise of networked information technology for the advancement of scholarly communication and the enrichment of intellectual productivity.

Communicating Science (AAAS)
Provides resources on sharing science with the public.

Association of Research Libraries- Scholars & Scholarship
An educational initiative that examines new opportunities in scholarly communication, advocates changes that recognize the potential of the networked digital environment, and encourages active participation by scholars and researchers to guide the course of change.

Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC)
SPARC is an international alliance of academic and research libraries working to correct imbalances in the scholarly publishing system. Its focus is to stimulate the emergence of new scholarly communication models that expand the dissemination of scholarly research and reduce financial pressures on libraries. Resources for authors.

Seizing the moment: scientists' authorship rights in the digital age (AAAS)

General Sources

Bing | Infospace | Yahoo | Zip Code Look-Up | DMOZ Open Directory Project | Domain Name Registries | DEX | SearchEngineZ | IxQuick | SuperPages | | Surfwax | Teoma | MetaCrawler | Yelp! | Find How

Airline List | Airport List | SeaTac | Travelocity | Expedia | CDC Traveler's Health | Logos Translation Dictionary | Travel Documents System | US State Department | US Customs and Border Control | AllHotels | Bed & Breakfast | FedRooms | Lonely Planet | Bureau of Travel Statistics | City Search | | Road Food | NOAA Travel Links | California Visitor Information | Oregon Visitor Information | Hawaii Visitor Information | Alaska Visitor Information | Washington Visitor Information

Biological Journals | Science Citation Index | CAS Source Index

Best seller lists
Amazon | New York Times

OnlineConversion.Com | Convert It | National Institute of Standards & Technology | Periodic Table of Elements | Official US Time | Universal Currency Converter | Time & Date | World Time Zone

Dictionaries/Encyclopedias/Language | The Phrase Finder | Merriam-Webster | Reverse Dictionary | | Life Science Dictionary | |

Encyclopedia of Earth

NOAA logo indicating licensed resource LexisNexis* | Pacific Northwest Newspapers Index | State newspapers: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Oregon, Washington | Historic American Newspapers

*Contact librarian for user name and password.

Tornados | El Niño and La Niña | Global Warming | Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Tropical Cyclones | Storm Chasing and Tornados | UV Index Forecast | Weather | National Geodetic Survey | Climate

NOAA Seattle Library extra-curricular collections
Visit the library to use these materials.

  • Green Trails hiking maps (Washington State only)
  • Delorme Gazetteer & Atlas for AK, CA, ID, HI, OR, WA and nearly all other states.
  • Washington bike trail maps
  • Outdoors NW print edition
  • Thomas street guides for King County (WA), Snohomish County (WA) and Portland (OR)
  • Selected regional maps
  • Travel guides for CA, OR and WA
  • Bird guides
  • Northwest plant and nature identification guides
  • New York Times
  • Nearly complete collection of the 100 All Time Best Novels

Pulitzer Prize Winners
Autobiography and Biography | Fiction | Non-fiction | History | Novel | Poetry

Style Manuals
APA | CBE | MLA | GPO Style Manual | Chicago/Turabian | Easybib | AGU Reference Style | AMS Author's Resources | Citation Machine | APA Style Help | Introduction to Legal Citation | Government Publication Citations

Web Authoring
Basic HTML | Basic XML | Dublin Core Metadata Editor | HTML 4.0 Reference | Online Tutorials

Seattle Times | CitySearch | Traffic | Seattle Visitor's Guide | King County Metro | Ferries


Government Reference

CIA World Factbook
Physical, political, and economic information.

Federal government publications
Catalog of U.S. Government Publications
| Federal Depository Library Directory | Government Printing Office | GPO's Federal Digital System | National Technical Information Service | Code of Federal Regulations | Federal Register

US Census Bureau
Statistical Abstract


| Marine Operations:Pacific | Western Region Security Office | Office of Human Capital Services | Publications | People | Corporate Services | Office of the Chief Information Officer

US Blue Pages

Western State government portals
Alaska | California | Hawaii | Idaho | Oregon | Washington


Law & Regulations

Google Scholar legal search - limit to 'legal opinions and journals'

NOAA logo indicating licensed resource HeinOnline

Legal Information Institute (Cornell)

NOAA logo indicating licensed resource LexisNexis* - request a user name and password

State legislation
| California | Hawaii | Idaho | Oregon | Washington
Federal legislative information

United State Code

Code of Federal Regulations


Science Reference

Antarctic and Cold Regions Bibliographies

Conference Proceedings
NOAA logo indicating licensed resource Conference Papers Index | Also use 'publication type' limit in most literature databases.

Dissertations and Theses
Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) | Open Access Theses and Dissertations | Australian Digital Theses | ProQuest Dissertation Express | Theses Canada | University of Washington, UW Fisheries Theses |NOAA logo indicating licensed resource WorldCat (use subtype limit) | Also search university library catalogs

IMPORTANT: Request full text copies of theses and dissertations through NOAA interlibrary loan.

Environmental data sets

Free science literature indexes, collections and repositories
Cite Seer
| Directory of Open Access Journals | Directory of Open Access Repositories | Google Scholar | Public Library of Science | Science Tracer Bullets Online | Global Change Master Directory | Cornell University Arxive | Intute (Closed July 2011)

Highly Cited Researchers (Clarivate)

NOAA logo indicating licensed resource Journal Citation Reports - Science Edition (Clarivate)

Smithsonian Institution

Scientific Societies
American Geophysical Union | American Meteorological Society | Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society | Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society | IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society | International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences | National Weather Association | World Meteorological Organization | Environment Canada

Science Writers Organizations
Canadian Science Writers Association | Council of Science Editors | IDEAlliance | IEEE Professional Communication Society | National Association of Government Communicators | National Association of Science Writers |Society for Technical Communication | Society for Scholarly Publishing |

Search ThomasNet to find manufacturers, distributors and service providers

Scientific Presentation Guides
The Art of Oral Scientific Presentation |Charts and Graphs | Fear of Public Speaking | Storytelling

Weather | Weather Underground | National Climatic Data Center | Office of Satellite Operations | Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies | Office of the Washington State Climatologist | NOAA Seattle Forecast Office | UW Atmospheric Science | UW Cambots

WIND and SEA Internet Guide (NOAA Central Library)
An index to atmospheric and oceanic science sites.

NOAA Comprehensive Large Array-Data Stewardship System (CLASS)


Oceanographic/Aquatic References

Ocean Expert
Directory of Marine and Freshwater Professionals

Fisheries Societies
American Fisheries Society | Alaska Chapter of the American Fisheries Society | Gilbert Ichthyological Society | American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists | Ichthyological Society of Japan (ISJ) | World Aquaculture Society

Federal Fisheries Organizations
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) | Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) | Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) | NMFS Alaska Regional Office | Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) | Fisheries-Oceanography Coordinated Investigations (FOCI) | Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC) | NMFS SWFSC Fisheries Ecology Division (Santa Cruz) | Pacific Fisheries Environmental Laboratory (SWFSC) | Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC) | U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | US FWS Coastal Habitat Conservation Programs | National Science Foundation

State/Regional Organizations
Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Research Section | Alaska Department of Fish and Game

National Marine Mammal Laboratory | National Marine Fisheries Service | Northwest Fisheries Science Center | Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory | Southwest Fisheries Science Center

IODE Ocean Data Portal | AquaDocs | Oceanographic Index | Live tracking of marine traffic | National Ocean Service | Ocean Information Center | NOAA Oceanographic Data Center | TOGA COARE | World Ocean Atlas | World Ocean Circulation Experiment | NOAA Tides and Currents | Tide and Current Predictor | Tides | Tides and Tide Prediction | Admiralty Easy Tide | Australian National Tidal Center | Sea Levels Online

Oceanographic Societies
American Society of Limnology and Oceanography | NSF Division of Ocean Science | IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society | International Association of Hydrological Science| International Association of the Physical Sciences of the Oceans | Marine Technology Society | National Association of Marine Laboratories | North Pacific Marine Sciences Organization | The Oceanography Society | The Oceanographic Society of Japan

NOAA Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services
Tide Predictions | Historic Tide Data | Tide and Current Glossary | Restless Tides

Pacific Regional Aquaculture Information Service for Education

Glossary of Physical Oceanography and Related Disciplines

Fish Base
Scientific and common names of fish


Geography/Place Names

U.S. Board on Geographic Names
Standardizes geographic name spellings throughout the federal government. They also standardize the transliteration system used for geographic names. An international body also provides additional transliteration systems.

Search or download U.S. Domestic places names
Find foreign place names

Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names

An additional resource for worldwide place names

Geographical Names of Canada

Mapquest | Google Maps | Bing Maps | Geospatial-Intelligence Agency | USGS Viewer


Material Safety Data Sheets

American Society for Testing and Materials; voluntary standards development organizations in the world and a source for technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services.

Consumer Product Safety Commission
Good search engine for info and regulations on consumer products

J.T. Baker Inc. site
Searchable by product number, product name, formula and CAS number

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety MSDS site
325,000 items in searchable archives

Very large MSDS database, lots of safety links & easy to use

Copyright, IP and Linking Disclaimer | Privacy Policy
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Bldg.3, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle WA, 98115-6349 | email: | 206.526.6242
Last Update: August 18, 2022